Comparing indocyanine green videoangiography to the gold standard of intraoperative digital subtraction angiography used in aneurysm surgery.

Journal of Neurosurgery

PubMedID: 23157184

Washington CW, Zipfel GJ, Chicoine MR, Derdeyn CP, Rich KM, Moran CJ, Cross DT, Dacey RG. Comparing indocyanine green videoangiography to the gold standard of intraoperative digital subtraction angiography used in aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg. 2013;118(2):420-7.
OBJECT
The purpose of aneurysm surgery is complete aneurysm obliteration while sparing associated arteries. Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography is a new technique that allows for real-time evaluation of blood flow in the aneurysm and vessels. The authors performed a retrospective study to compare the accuracy of ICG videoangiography with intraoperative angiography (IA), and determine if ICG videoangiography can be used without follow-up IA.

METHODS
From June 2007 through September 2009, 155 patients underwent craniotomies for clipping of aneurysms. Operative summaries, angiograms, and operative and ICG videoangiography videos were reviewed. The number, size, and location of aneurysms, the ICG videoangiography and IA findings, and the need for clip adjustment after ICG videoangiography and IA were recorded. Discordance between ICG videoangiography and IA was defined as ICG videoangiography demonstrating aneurysm obliteration and normal vessel flow, but post-IA showing either an aneurysmal remnant and/or vessel occlusion requiring clip adjustment.

RESULTS
Thirty-two percent of patients (49 of 155) underwent both ICG videoangiography and IA. The post-ICG videoangiography clip adjustment rate was 4.1% (2 of 49). The overall rate of ICG videoangiography-IA agreement was 75.5% (37 of 49) and the ICG videoangiography-IA discordance rate requiring post-IA clip adjustment was 14.3% (7 of 49). Adjustments were due to 3 aneurysmal remnants and 4 vessel occlusions. These adjustments were attributed to obscuration of the residual aneurysm or the affected vessel from the field of view and the presence of dye in the affected vessel via collateral flow. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for ICG videoangiography-IA discordance requiring clip adjustment to occur in cases involving the anterior communicating artery complex, with an odds ratio of 3.3 for ICG videoangiography-IA discordance in these cases.

CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that care should be taken when considering ICG videoangiography as the sole means for intraoperative evaluation of aneurysm clip application. The authors further conclude that IA should remain the gold standard for evaluation during aneurysm surgery. However, a combination of ICG videoangiography and IA may ultimately prove to be the most effective strategy for maximizing the safety and efficacy of aneurysm surgery.