Mechanistic coupling of protease signaling and initiation of coagulation by tissue factor.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

PubMedID: 11438726

Riewald M, Ruf W. Mechanistic coupling of protease signaling and initiation of coagulation by tissue factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98(14):7742-7.
The crucial role of cell signaling in hemostasis is clearly established by the action of the downstream coagulation protease thrombin that cleaves platelet-expressed G-protein-coupled protease activated receptors (PARs). Certain PARs are cleaved by the upstream coagulation proteases factor Xa (Xa) and the tissue factor (TF)--factor VIIa (VIIa) complex, but these enzymes are required at high nonphysiological concentrations and show limited recognition specificity for the scissile bond of target PARs. However, defining a physiological mechanism of PAR activation by upstream proteases is highly relevant because of the potent anti-inflammatory in vivo effects of inhibitors of the TF initiation complex. Activation of substrate factor X (X) by the TF--VIIa complex is here shown to produce enhanced cell signaling in comparison to the TF--VIIa complex alone, free Xa, or Xa that is generated in situ by the intrinsic activation complex. Macromolecular assembly of X into a ternary complex of TF--VIIa--X is required for proteolytic conversion to Xa, and product Xa remains transiently associated in a TF--VIIa--Xa complex. By trapping this complex with a unique inhibitor that preserves Xa activity, we directly show that Xa in this ternary complex efficiently activates PAR-1 and -2. These experiments support the concept that proinflammatory upstream coagulation protease signaling is mechanistically coupled and thus an integrated part of the TF--VIIa-initiated coagulation pathway, rather than a late event during excessive activation of coagulation and systemic generation of proteolytic activity.