Role of CHD5 in Human Cancers: 10 Years Later.

Cancer Research

PubMedID: 24419087

Kolla V, Zhuang T, Higashi M, Naraparaju K, Brodeur GM. Role of CHD5 in Human Cancers: 10 Years Later. Cancer Res. 2014;74(3):652-8.
CHD5 was first identified because of its location on 1p36 in a region of frequent deletion in neuroblastomas. CHD5 (chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding-5) is the fifth member of a family of chromatin remodeling proteins, and it probably functions by forming a nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex that regulates transcription of particular genes. CHD5 is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and testis. On the basis of its position, pattern of expression, and function in neuroblastoma cells and xenografts, CHD5 was identified as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Evidence soon emerged that CHD5 also functioned as a TSG in gliomas and a variety of other tumor types, including breast, colon, lung, ovary, and prostate cancers. Although one copy of CHD5 is deleted frequently, inactivating mutations of the remaining allele are rare. However, DNA methylation of the CHD5 promoter is found frequently, and this epigenetic mechanism leads to biallelic inactivation. Furthermore, low CHD5 expression is strongly associated with unfavorable clinical and biologic features as well as outcome in neuroblastomas and many other tumor types. Thus, based on its likely involvement as a TSG in neuroblastomas, gliomas, and many common adult tumors, CHD5 may play an important developmental role in many other tissues besides the nervous system and testis. Cancer Res; 74(4); 1-7. ©2014 AACR.