Direct cortical hemodynamics mapping of somatotopy of pig nostril sensation by functional Near-infrared Cortical Imaging (fNCI).

NeuroImage

PubMedID: 24418508

Uga M, Saito T, Sano T, Yokota H, Oguro K, Rizki EE, Mizutani T, Katura T, Dan I, Watanabe E. Direct cortical hemodynamics mapping of somatotopy of pig nostril sensation by functional Near-infrared Cortical Imaging (fNCI). Neuroimage. 2014;91138-45.
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique for the noninvasive monitoring of human brain activation states utilizing the coupling between neural activity and regional cerebral hemodynamics. Illuminators and detectors, together constituting optodes, are placed on the scalp, but due to the presence of head tissues, an inter-optode distance of more than 2.5cm is necessary to detect cortical signals. Although direct cortical monitoring with fNIRS has been pursued, a high-resolution visualization of hemodynamic changes associated with sensory, motor and cognitive neural response directly from the cortical surface has yet to be realized. To acquire robust information on the hemodynamics of the cortex, devoid of signal complications in transcranial measurement, we devised a functional Near-infrared Cortical Imaging (fNCI) technique. Here we demonstrate the first direct functional measurement of temporal and spatial patterns of cortical hemodynamics using the fNCI technique. For fNCI, inter-optode distance was set at 5mm, and light leakage from illuminators was prevented by a special optode holder made of a light-shielding rubber sheet. fNCI successfully detected the somatotopy of pig nostril sensation, as assessed in comparison with concurrent and sequential somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) measurements on the same stimulation sites. Accordingly, the fNCI system realized a direct cortical hemodynamics measurement with a spatial resolution comparable to that of SEP mapping on the rostral region of the pig brain. This study provides an important initial step toward realizing functional cortical hemodynamics monitoring during neurosurgery of human brains.