Allogeneic compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation: a potential immunological mechanism.

Chinese medical journal

PubMedID: 24451953

Qiao S, Ren H, Shi Y, Liu W. Allogeneic compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation: a potential immunological mechanism. Chin Med J. 2014;127(3):475-82.
BACKGROUND
Radiation-induced injury after accidental or therapeutic total body exposure to ionizing radiation has serious pathophysiological consequences, and currently no effective therapy exists. This study was designed to investigate whether transplantation of allogeneic murine compact bone derived-mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) could improve the survival of mice exposed to lethal dosage total body irradiation (TBI), and to explore the potential immunoprotective role of MSCs.

METHODS
BALB/c mice were treated with 8 Gy TBI, and then some were administered CB-MSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice. Survival rates and body weight were analyzed for 14 days post-irradiation. At three days post-irradiation, we evaluated IFN-? and IL-4 concentrations; CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage; CXCR3, CCR5, and CCR7 expressions on CD3(+) T cells; and splenocyte T-bet and GATA-3 mRNA levels. CB-MSC effects on bone marrow hemopoiesis were assessed via colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.

RESULTS
After lethal TBI, compared to non-transplanted mice, CB-MSC-transplanted mice exhibited significantly increased survival, body weight, and CFU-GM counts of bone marrow cells (P < 0.05), as well as higher Treg percentages, reduced IFN-?, CXCR3 and CCR5 down-regulation, and CCR7 up-regulation. CB-MSC transplantation suppressed Th1 immunity. Irradiated splenocytes directly suppressed CFU-GM formation from bone marrow cells, and CB-MSC co-culture reversed this inhibition.

CONCLUSION
Allogeneic CB-MSC transplantation attenuated radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity, and provided immunoprotection by alleviating lymphocyte-mediated CFU-GM inhibition, expanding Tregs, regulating T cell chemokine receptor expressions, and skewing the Th1/Th2 balance toward anti-inflammatory Th2 polarization.