Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of the mitochondrial F(1)F(o) ATPase: is ATP synthase a reversible molecular machine?

The Journal of experimental biology

PubMedID: 10600672

Vinogradov AD. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of the mitochondrial F(1)F(o) ATPase: is ATP synthase a reversible molecular machine?. J Exp Biol. 2000;203(Pt 1):41-9.
H(+)-ATP synthase (F(1)F(o) ATPase) catalyzes the synthesis and/or hydrolysis of ATP, and the reactions are strongly affected by all the substrates (products) in a way clearly distinct from that expected of a simple reversibly operating enzyme. Recent studies have revealed the structure of F(1), which is ideally suited for the alternating binding change mechanism, with a rotating gamma-subunit as the energy-driven coupling device. According to this mechanism ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and Mg(2+) participate in the forward and reverse overall reactions exclusively as the substrates and products. However, both F(1) and F(1)F(o) demonstrate non-trivial steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics as a function of variable substrate (product) concentrations. Several effectors cause unidirectional inhibition or activation of the enzyme. When considered separately, the unidirectional effects of ADP, P(i), Mg(2+) and energy supply on ATP synthesis or hydrolysis may possibly be explained by very complex kinetic schemes; taken together, the results suggest that different conformational states of the enzyme operate in the ATP hydrolase and ATP synthase reactions. A possible mechanism for an energy-dependent switch between the two states of F(1)F(o) ATPase is proposed.