Oral DNA vaccination promotes mucosal and systemic immune responses to HIV envelope glycoprotein.

Virology

PubMedID: 10648178

Kaneko H, Bednarek I, Wierzbicki A, Kiszka I, Dmochowski M, Wasik TJ, Kaneko Y, Kozbor D. Oral DNA vaccination promotes mucosal and systemic immune responses to HIV envelope glycoprotein. Virology. 2000;267(1):8-16.
In this report, we described induction of HIV envelope (env)-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses by oral vaccination of BALB/c mice with env-encoded plasmid DNA encapsulated in poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles. We demonstrated that intragastric administration of the encapsulated plasmid DNA resulted in transduced expression of the env glycoprotein in the intestinal epithelium. Mice immunized orally exhibited env-specific type 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in spleen and the inductive (Peyer's patches) and effector (lamina propria) mucosal tissues of gut. Oral administration of PLG-encapsulated plasmid DNA encoding gp160 also induced env-specific serum antibodies, and an increased level of IgA directed to gp160 was detected in fecal washes of the immunized mice. In contrast, intramuscular (i.m.) administration of naked or PLG-encapsulated DNA vaccine induced only systemic cellular and humoral responses to the env glycoprotein. Using an HIV env-expressing recombinant vaccinia viral intrarectal murine challenge system, we observed higher resistance to mucosal viral transmission in mice immunized orally than in animals injected i.m. with PLG-encapsulated plasmid DNA encoding gp160. Results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using orally delivered PLG microparticles containing plasmid DNA-encoded HIV gp160 for induction of env-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses and protection against recombinant HIV env vaccinia virus challenge.