Synergism between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Salmonella choleraesuis in swine.

Veterinary microbiology

PubMedID: 10703702

Wills RW, Gray JT, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Yoon KJ, Ladely S, Zimmerman JJ. Synergism between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Salmonella choleraesuis in swine. Vet Microbiol. 2000;71(3-4):177-92.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Salmonella choleraesuis are two leading causes of economic loss in the swine industry. While respiratory disease is common in both S. choleraesuis and PRRSV infections, the factors that contribute to its development remain largely undefined. We investigated the interaction of PRRSV, S. choleraesuis, and stress in 5-week-old swine. All combinations of three factors (inoculation with S. choleraesuis on Day 0, PRRSV on Day 3, and treatment with dexamethasone on Days 3-7) were used to produce eight treatment groups in two independent trials. Fecal samples, tonsil and nasal swabs, serum samples and postmortem tissues were collected for bacteriologic and virologic examinations. No clinical signs were observed in pigs inoculated with only PRRSV or only S. choleraesuis. In contrast, pigs which were dually infected with S. choleraesuis and PRRSV exhibited unthriftiness, rough hair coats, dyspnea, and diarrhea. The pigs which received all three treatment factors were the most severely affected and 43% (three of seven) of the animals in this group died. Individuals in this group shed significantly higher quantities of S. choleraesuis in feces and had significantly higher serum PRRSV titers compared to other treatments (p < or = 0.05). In addition, S. choleraesuis and PRRSV were shed longer and by more pigs in this group than other groups and S. choleraesuis was recovered from more tissues in this group on Day 21 post inoculation. These results suggested that PRRSV, S. choleraesuis, and dexamethasone acted synergistically to produce a syndrome similar to that observed in the field.