Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two novel Neu3 sialidases, neu3a and neu3b, from medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Biochimie

PubMedID: 23032629

Shiozaki K, Takeshita K, Ikeda M, Ikeda A, Harasaki Y, Komatsu M, Yamada S, Yamaguchi K, Miyagi T. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two novel Neu3 sialidases, neu3a and neu3b, from medaka (Oryzias latipes). Biochimie. 2013;95(2):280-9.
Mammalian Neu3 sialidases are involved in various biological processes, such as cell death and differentiation, through desialylation of gangliosides. The enzymatic profile of Neu3 seems to be highly conserved from birds to mammals. In fish, the functional properties of Neu3 sialidase are not clearly understood, with the partial exception of the zebrafish form. To cast further light on the molecular evolution of Neu3 sialidase, we identified the encoding genes in the medaka Oryzias latipes and investigated the properties of the enzyme. PCR amplification using medaka brain cDNA allowed identification of two novel medaka Neu3 genes, neu3a and neu3b. The YRIP, VGPG motif and Asp-Box, characteristic of consensus motifs of sialidases, were well conserved in the both medaka Neu3 sialidases. When each gene was transfected into HEK293 to allow cell lysates for the use of enzymatic characterization, two Neu3 sialidases showed strict substrate specificity toward gangliosides, similar to mammalian Neu3. The optimal pH values were at pH 4.2 and pH 4.0, respectively, and neu3b in particular showed a broad optimum. Immunofluorescence assays indicated neu3a localization at plasma membranes, while neu3b was found in cytosol. The tissue distribution of two genes was then investigated by estimation of mRNA expression and sialidase activity, both being dominantly expressed in the brain. In neu3a gene-transfected neuroblastoma cells, the enzyme was found to positively regulate retinoic acid-induced differentiation with the elongation of axon length. On the other hand, neu3b did not affect neurite formation. These results and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the medaka neu3a is an evolutionally conserved sialidase with regard to enzymatic properties, whereas neu3b is likely to have originally evolved in medaka.